2009-10: Nick Schilkey played for the Honeybaked U16 midget team in Michigan. In 31 games he scored 19 goals with 19 assists and had 18 penalty minutes. Schilkey was invited to USA Hockey's Select 16 Development Camp in June. He was selected by Green Bay in the third round (39th overall) of the 2010 USHL Futures Draft.
2010-11: Schilkey skated for the Honeybaked U18 midget team, scoring over a point per game, and was selected to attend USA Hockey's Select 17 Development Camp. He scored 20 goals with 29 assists and had 20 penalty minutes for Honeybaked. Schilkey was one of the top forwards at the Select 17 camp and was chosen to play for the USA at the 2011 Ivan Hlinka Memorial Tournament in August. He committed to playing college hockey at Ohio State in 2013-14.
2011-12: Schilkey participated in the Ivan Hlinka Tournament in August before joining the Green Bay Gamblers for his first USHL season. He scored 16 goals with 20 assists and was +23 with 33 penalty minutes in 59 regular season USHL games. The Gamblers finished first in the Eastern Conference and captured the Clark Cup title in the playoffs. Schilkey scored 1 goal with 5 assists and was +4 in 12 playoff games. He was +2 and scored 2 goals for Team USA at the Ivan Hlinka Tournament. The USA finished fifth despite winning three of four games. Schilkey participated in the USH/NHL Top Prospects Game in January but was not selected in the 2012 NHL Draft.
2012-13: Schilkey was the second-leading scorer for Green Bay in his second USHL season and skated for the USA in the 2012 World Junior A Challenge. He led the Gamblers with 32 goals and had 39 assists; and was +10 with 27 penalty minutes in 59 games. Green Bay finished second in the Eastern Conference before losing to third-place Youngstown in four games in a best-of-five playoff series. Schilkey scored 1 goal with 2 assists and was -1 with 2 penalty minutes in the playoffs. He scored 2 goals with 1 assist and had 2 penalty minutes at the WJAC.
2013-14: Schilkey scored 13 goals in his freshman season at Ohio State, second only to Ryan Dzingel (OTT) for the Buckeyes, and played in all 37 games. He had 13 assists and was +9 with 12 penalty minutes. The Buckeyes finished fourth in the inaugural season of the Big Ten Conference and reached the league's championship game; falling to Wisconsin 5-4 in overtime. Schilkey scored a power play goal in Ohio State's 3-1 win over Minnesota in the conference semifinals and had an assist in the loss to the Badgers.