2010-11: Nikita Cherepanov skated for Lokomotiv Yaroslavl's 1995-born team in Russia. He scored 5 goals with 13 assists and 18 penalty minutes in 22 games in Moscow Group play and had 1 goal with 2 assists, finishing -1 with 4 penalty minutes in five games at the Russian championship.
2011-12: Cherepanov played in the MHL (U22 league) with Loko Yaroslavl as a 16-year-old and skated for the Yaroslavl 1995-born team that won the Moscow title and reached the Russian championship. He played for the Russia U17 team that won a gold medal at the 2012 World Hockey Challenge. Cherepanov scored 2 goals with 2 assists and was +8 with 8 penalty minutes in 24 regular season games with Loko and was -1 with no points and 4 penalty minutes in two MHL playoff games. Cherepanov scored 1 goal with 8 assists and 16 penalty minutes in 19 Moscow group games for Yaroslavl Lokomotive 1995's and was +1 with 10 penalty minutes in five games at the Russian championships. In six games at the WHC he scored 1 goal with 1 assist and 4 penalty minutes. Russia defeated Sweden in the gold medal game. Cherepanov was selected by Lokomotiv Yaroslavl in the fourth round (113th overall) in the 2012 KHL Draft.
2012-13: Cherepanov skated in 50 games for Loko Yaroslavl in his first full season in the MHL and played for Russia's U18 team in the 2012 Ivan Hlinka Memorial tournament. He scored 1 goal with 1 assists and was -3 with 36 penalty minutes in 50 regular season games for Loko, which missed the playoffs after finishing ninth in the West Conference. Cherepanov was +5 with no points and 4 penalty minutes in five games at the Ivan Hlinka tournament.