2009-10: Nikita Gusev played for the CSKA-Red Army junior team in Russia. He scored 17 goals with 40 goals and had 14 penalty minutes in 48 games. In five playoff games he scored 1 goal with 2 assists.
2010-11: Gusev made his KHL debut, skating in 18 games for CSKA-Red Army, and was the leading scorer for CSKA-Red Army's junior team. Gusev scored 1 goal and was minus-one with 8 penalty minutes in limited ice time with the KHL club. In 38 junior games he scored 22 goals and was plus-35 with 37 assists and 14 penalty minutes. CSKA-Red Army captured the MHL championship and in 16 playoff games Gusev scored 17 goals with 10 assists and was plus-15 with 6 penalty minutes. Gusev was ranked 52nd by Central Scouting in their final rankings prior to the 2011 NHL Draft but was not selected.
2011-12: Gusev appeared in 15 KHL games for CSKA-Red Army and was the MHL junior league's second-leading scorer. He represented Russia at the 2012 U20 World Junior Championship. Gusev scored 2 goals with 1 assist and was minus-two in KHL play. In 34 games for CSKA-Red Army's junior team he scored 30 goals with 46 assists and was plus-23 with 26 penalty minutes. Gusev scored 3 goals with 6 assists and was plus-6in seven games for Russia at the WJC. Russia won a silver medal at the tournament. Gusev was ranked 20th amongst European skaters in Central Scouting's final rankings prior to the 2012 NHL Draft.
2012-13: Gusev saw limited ice time in six games with KHL club CSKA Moscow — spending time with the THK Tver in Russia's second league — but had a larger role after a mid-season move to Amur Khabarovsk. He had 1 assist and was -2 with CSKA, which finished first in the Tarasov Division. Gusev scored 4 goals with 8 assists, finishing with an even plus/minus and 6 penalty minutes in 24 games with Khabarovsk, which had the KHL's second-worst record and finished last in the Chernyshev Division. Gusev scored 7 goals with 6 assists in 15 VHL games with THK Tver and was -2 with 2 penalty minutes.
In September of 2013, Gusev was traded from CSKA Moscow to Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk and is playing there in 2013-14.