2009-10: Riley Barber skated for the Compuware U16 midget minor team in Michigan. In 38 games he scored 16 goals with 22 assists and had 28 penalty minutes. Barber was selected by the Dubuque Fighting Saints with the first overall pick in the 2010 USHL Futures Draft.
2010-11: Barber played for USHL champion Dubuque and represented the USA in two U17 tournaments. In 57 regular season games for the Fighting Saints he scored 14 goals with 14 assists and was minus-14 with 48 penalty minutes. Dubuque finished first in the Western Division and defeated Green Bay in the playoff finals. Barber scored 2 goals and had 6 penalty minutes in 11 playoff games. In August he had 1 goal and 1 assist in four games as the US squad won the Five Nations U17 tournament in Switzerland and he had 1 goal with 1 assist in three games as the team captured the 2011 Vlad Dzurilla U18 tournament in Slovakia.
2011-12: Barber joined the US National Development Team Program in Ann Arbor and was the third-leading scorer for the NDTP's U18 team. In 60 games he scored 21 goals with 15 assists and had 85 penalty minutes. In six games at the 2012 U18 World Junior Championship, Barber scored 1 goal with 2 assists and was plus-two with 2 penalty minutes. The USA won its fourth straight U18 championship. In his second year of draft eligibility, he was ranked 86th amongst North American skaters in Central Scouting's final rankings and selected by Washington in the sixth round (167th overall) of the 2012 NHL Draft.
Barber currently is in his freshman season at Miami University.